Manifold

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The exhaust manifold or manifold has the task to discharge the exhaust gas flow of the individual cylinders of the cylinder head. Depending on the number of cylinders and firing order a corresponding combination of the individual exhaust trains is required, so that the pulsation of the outflow of a cylinder does not interfere with other cylinders and a discharge in the form of negative pressure waves does not occur. The combustion gases reach the individual cylinders according to the firing order at different times in the exhaust manifold. This has the result that, before the merging very different pressure and vibration conditions exist that affect the engine behavior (eg, medium-pressure, performance, fuel consumption, exhaust). To achieve a high power, therefore, a late merging of the individual exhaust trains is important. The manifold is made in most cases of alloy cast iron, or alternatively of stainless steel. Due to the thermal stress the inner tubes are made of heat resisting steel with a wall thickness of approximately 1 mm which has to withstand up to 900 ° C. These thin-walled manifolds are manufactured since 1980 due to lower emissions.